. Compare and contrast the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis.

Use Chapter 1 from Starr and Taggart Biology text to answer the following: 1.1 DNA, energy and life Biology: DNA: Inheritance: Reproduction: Development: Energy: Metabolism: Receptors: Stimulus: Homeostasis: Fill in the blanks: The fundamental unit of life is called the _______________. Within these cells the signature, or defining molecule is a nucleic acid known as __________. Encoded within the structure of the genetic material are the instructions needed for manufacturing of __________________. The building blocks used during the assembly of these molecules are the ______________________________. When supplied with energy, a specialized group of proteins, called the _______________________ act as worker molecules, which serve by rapidly building, splitting or rearranging the wide variety of complex molecules needed for life. Another nucleic acid, called _______________________ assists the enzymes in carrying out DNA’s protein-building instructions. Thus, the information originates in the ___________________ and flows to the _____________, resulting in the formation of a ___________________. The passing of traits from the parent to the offspring by means of DNA is called ___________________________________. The physical mechanism by which these traits are transferred is called ___________________. For multicellular organisms such as plants and animals, which consist of specialized cells, tissues, and organs, the process of ___________________ is directed by the instructions contained within the DNA. The work of the cell in assembling, splitting and rearranging the structure of molecules requires an input of __________________, which represents the capacity to do work. _________________ refers to the cell’s capacity to obtain and convert energy from its surroundings and to use that energy to maintain itself, grow, and produce more cells. In leaves, for example, specialized cells carry out the process of ______________________________ by intercepting energy from the sun and converting it into chemical energy molecules called _________________. In turn, these molecules transfer energy to the _________________________ of metabolic pathways. ATP energy molecules may also be formed by ____________________________________. This process can release energy that cells have tucked away in sugars and other kinds of molecules. Organisms sense changes in their surroundings, then make controlled, compensatory ___________________________ to them. To accomplish this, special molecules and structures called ____________________________ detect _____________________________. A __________________________ is a specific form of energy detected by receptors. Sunlight, heat ______________________ and mechanical stress are all examples of stimuli. Cells adjust metabolic activities in response to signals from receptors. For example, after a snack, simple sugars and other molecules leave the gut and enter the blood, which is part of a ___________________ environment. Blood sugar levels then rise and stimulate secretion of the hormone insulin by the pancreas. Most of the cells in your body have _____________________ for this hormone. Insulin stimulates cells to take up sugar molecules from the external environment and return blood sugar concentration levels to normal. Organisms respond so exquisitely to energy changes that their internal operating conditions remains within tolerable limits. This is called a state of _____________________________, one of the key defining features of life. 1.2 Energy and Life’s organization Cell: Multicelled organisms: Population: Community: Ecosystem: Biosphere: Producers: Consumers: Decomposers: For 1-10, choose from the following: a. Evolution through artificial selection b. Evolution through natural selection 1. _____ Pigeon breeding 2. _____ Antibiotics are powerful agents of this process 3. _____ the effects of a peregrine falcon on a pigeon population 4. _____ a favoring of adaptive traits in nature 5. _____ the selection of one form of a trait over another, taking place under contrived, manipulated conditions 6. _____ refers to a change that is occurring within a line of descent over time 7. _____ a difference in which individuals of a given generation survive and reproduce, the difference being an outcome of which ones have adaptive forms of the traits. 8. _____ Darwin viewed this as a simple model for natural selection. 9. _____ Breeders are the “selective agents” 10. _____ The mechanism whereby antibiotic resistance evolves. 1.5-1.7 Biology inquiry Hypothesis: Prediction: Test: Models: Inductive logic: Deductive logic: Experiments: Control group: Variables: Sampling error: Scientific theory: Put the following into the correct sequence: 1. ______ A. develop hypotheses about what the solution to a problem might be 2. ______ B. repeat or devise new tests 3. ______ C. devise ways to test the accuracy of predictions drawn from the hypothesis (use of observations, models, and experiments) 4. ______ D. make a prediction, using hypotheses as a guide; the “if-then” process 5. ______ E. if the tests do not provide the expected results, check to see what might have gone wrong 6. ______ F. objectively analyze and report the results from tests and the conclusions drawn 7. ______ G. identify a problem or make an observation about the natural world Assume that you have to identify what object is hidden inside a sealed, opaque box. Your only tools to test the contents are a bar magnet and a triple beam balance. Label each of the following with an “O” for observation and a “C” for conclusion. 8. ______ The object has two flat surfaces. 9. ______ The object is composed of nonmagnetic metal. 10. ______ The object is not a quarter, a half dollar or a silver dollar. 11. ______ The object weighs x grams. 12. ______ The object is a penny. Chapter 2 Questions: Chemical foundations for cells 2.1-2.2: Regarding atoms Element: Atoms: Protons: Electrons: Neutrons: Isotopes: Radioisotopes: Tracers: Matching: 1. _____ atoms A. a compound that has a radioisotope attached that is used to determine the pathway or destination of a substance 2. _____ protons B. subatomic particles with a negative charge 3. _____ trace element C. positively charged subatomic particles within the nucleus 4. _____ PET D. positron emission tomography: obtains images of particular body tissues 5. _____ neutrons E. atoms of a given element that differ in the number of neutrons 6. _____ electrons F. the number of protons in an atom 7. _____ atomic number G. a form of isotope that contains an unstable nucleus that emits energy and particles in an attempt to stabilize its structure 8. _____ mass number H. chemical elements representing less than 0.01 percent of body weight 9. _____ elements I. Destroys or impairs living cancer cells 10. _____ isotope J. the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of one atom 11. _____ radioisotopes K. fundamental forms of matter that occupy space 12. _____ tracer L. smallest units that retain the properties of a given element 13. _____ radiation therapy M. subatomic particles within the nucleus carrying no charge 2.3: what happens when atom binds with atom? Shell model: Chemical bond: Molecule: Compounds: Mixture: Matching: 1. _____ mixture A. regions of space around an atom’s nucleus where electrons are likely to be at any one instant 2. _____ shell model B. results when two or more atoms bind together 3. _____ lowest available energy level C. two or more elements that may combine in various Proportions 4. _____ inert atoms D. a union between the electron structures of atoms 5. ______ orbitals E. a graphic representation of the distribution of electrons in their energy levels 6. ______ chemical bond F. types of molecules composed of two or more different elements in proportions that never vary 7. ______ compounds G. energy of electrons farther from the nucleus than the first orbital 8. ______ molecule H. refers to those elements with no vacancies in their shells; hence they show little tendency to enter chemical reactions 9. ______ higher energy levels I. energy of electrons in the orbital closest to the Nucleus short answer: distinguish between a nonpolar covalent bond and a polar covalent bond. Cite an example of each. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Short answer: explain the importance of hydrogen bonds in establishing the structure of DNA. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.5: Properties of Water Hydrophilic substances: Hydrophobic substances: Temperature: Evaporation: Cohesion: Solute: Solvent: Fill in: The ________________________ of water molecules allows them to hydrogen bond with each other. Water molecules hydrogen bond with polar molecules, which are _________________________(water loving) substances. Polarity causes water to repel oil and other nonpolar substances, which are _____________________________ (water dreading). The term _______________ is the measure of the molecular motion of a given substance. Liquid water changes its temperature more slowly than air because of the great amount of heat required to break the high number of _______________________ bonds between water molecules; this property helps ________________________ temperature in aquatic habitats and inside cells. ________________________occurs when large energy inputs increase molecular motion to the point where hydrogen bonds stay broken, releasing individual molecules from the water surface. Below 0 degrees Celcius, water molecules become locked in the latticelike bonding pattern of ____________________________, which is less dense than liquid water. Collective hydrogen bonding creates a high tension on surface water molecules, resulting in _________________________, the property of water that explains how long, narrow water columns rise to the tops of trees. Water is an excellent ________________________, in which ions and polar molecules readily dissolve. Substances dissolved in water are known as ________________________. A substance is ____________________________ in water when spheres of ____________________________ form around its individual ions or molecules. 2.6: Acids, Bases and Buffers Hydrogen ions: pH scale: acids: bases: buffer system: salts: Matching: 1. ____ acid stomach A. CO2 builds up in the blood, too much carbonic acid (H2CO3) forms, and blood pH severely decreases 2. ____ acids B. hydroxide ion 3. ____pH scale C. substances that accept H+ when dissolved in water 4. ____ chemical burns D. an uncorrected increase in blood pH 5. ____ alkaline E. used to represent H+ concentration in various fluids 6. ____H+ F. a partnership between a weak acid and the base that forms when it dissolves in water; counters slight pH shifts 7. ____ bases G. hydrogen ion or proton 8. ____ examples of basic solutions H. baking soda, seawater, egg white 9. ____acidosis I. a condition that can be caused by powerful acids and bases, such as ammonia, drane cleaner, and sulfuric acid in car batteries 10. ____ OH- J. substances that donate H+ when dissolved in water 11. ____ examples of acid solutions K. lemon juice, gastric fluid, coffee 12. ____ alkalosis L. an environmental condition caused by burning of fossil fuels and the use of nitrogen fertilizers 13. ____ buffer system M. a condition caused by a diet high in spicy foods 14. ____ acid rain N. another term used to describe a basic solution Complete the table: fluid pH value Acid/base/neutral? bleach oranges urine blood Gastric fluid Pure water Summer Assignment Quiz Name: ______________________________ This is an open notes and text quiz, but you may not discuss questions with anyone while you are taking it. 1. Living organisms are different from inanimate objects because they a. React to environmental stimuli b. Exhibit massive complexity c. Possess molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid d. Exhibit multiple levels of organization e. All of these 2. Living organisms are members of all of the levels listed below; however, rocks are components of a. The community b. The population c. The ecosystem d. The biosphere e. Both the ecosystem and the biosphere 3. Homeostasis provides what kind of environment? a. Positive b. Constant c. Limiting d. Changing e. Chemical and physical 4. The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is known as a. Metabolism b. Photosynthesis c. Chemosynthesis d. Catabolism e. Anabolism 5. All organisms are alike in that they a. require energy b. participate in one or more nutrient cycles c. ultimately depend on the sun d. interact with other forms of life e. All of these 6. A scientific name consists of a. Family name b. Genus name c. Species name d. Family and species names e. Genus and species names 7. Members of what kingdom are all anaerobic? a. Animalia b. Protista c. Fungi d. Plantae e. Archaebacteria 8. Members of what kingdom are multicellular producers? a. Animalia b. Protista c. Fungi d. Plantae e. Archaebacteria 9. Members of what kingdom are decomposers? a. Animalia b. Protista c. Fungi d. Plantae e. Archaebacteria 10. The principle point of Darwin’s theory of Evolution by natural selection was that a. Long term heritable changes in organisms are caused by use and disuse b. Mutations that adapt an organism to a given environment always arise in the greatest frequency in the organisms that occupy that environment c. Mutations are caused by all sorts of environmental influences d. Survival of characteristics in a population depends on competition between organisms, especially between members of the same species 11. Which represents the lowest degree of certainty? a. Hypothesis b. Conclusion c. Fact d. Principle e. Theory 12. In an experiment, the control group a. Is not subjected to experimental error. b. Is exposed to experimental treatments. c. Is maintained under strict laboratory conditions. d. Is treated exactly the same as the experimental group, except for the one independent variable. e. Is statistically the most important part of the experiment. 13. Which of the following can be changed based on new evidence? a. Hypothesis b. Theory c. Prediction d. Experiment e. All of these 14. Which is the smallest portion of a substance that retains the properties of an element? a. Atom b. Compound c. Ion d. Molecule e. Mixture 15. The nucleus of an atom contains a. Neutrons and protons b. Neutrons and electrons c. Protons and electrons d. Protons only e. Neutrons 16. The negative subatomic particle is the a. Neutron b. Proton c. Electron d. Both neutron and proton e. Both proton and electron 17. If the atomic weight of carbon is 12 and the atomic weight of oxygen is 16, the molecular weight of glucose (C6H12O6) is a. 24 grams b. 28 grams c. 52 grams d. 168 grams e. 180 grams 18. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. All isotopes of an element have the same number of electrons b. All isotopes of an element have the same number of protons c. All isotopes of an element have the same number of neutrons d. All radioactive isotopes are unstable 19. Which statement concerning radioisotope 14C is LEAST accurate? a. It will substitute for 12C in glucose b. It will kill cells in which it occurs c. It has more neutrons than 12C d. It behaves the same chemically as 12C e. It has six carbons and eight neutrons 20. When carbon 14 undergoes radioactive decay, ___________ is produced. a. Carbon 12 b. Carbon 13 c. Carbon 14 d. Nitrogen 14 e. Oxygen 14 21. Oxygen, with an atomic number of 8, has _____ electrons in the first energy level and ________________ electrons in the second energy level. a. 1,7 b. 2,6 c. 3,5 d. 4,4 e. 5,3 22. Which statement is NOT true? a. Electrons closest to the nucleus are at the lowest energy level b. No more than two electrons can occupy a single orbital c. Electrons are unable to move out of the assigned orbital space d. The innermost orbital holds two electrons e. At the second energy level there are four possible orbitals with a total of eight electrons 23. In _______ bonds, both atoms exert the same pull on shared electrons. a. Nonpolar covalent b. Polar covalent c. Double covalent d. Triple covalent 24. In a lipid bilayer, the ___________ phospholipid tails point inward and form a region that excludes water. a. Acidic b. Basic c. Hydrophilic d. Hydrophobic e. None of these 25. The column of water extending in tubes from plant roots to leaves is due mostly to a. Cohesion b. Evaporation c. Ionization d. Hydrophobic interactions e. All of these 26. A salt will dissolve in water to form a. Acids b. Gases c. Ions d. Bases e. Polar solvents 27. A reaction of an acid and a base will produce water and a. A buffer b. A salt c. Gas d. Solid precipitate e. Solute 28. A pH of 10 is how many times as basic as a pH of 7? a. 2 b. 3 c. 10 d. 100 e. 1000 29. Cellular pH is kept near a value of 7 because of a. Salts b. Buffers c. Acids d. Bases e. Water 30. Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of water. Select the exception. a. Stabilizes temperature b. Is a common solvent c. Has cohesion and surface tension d. Produces salts e. Changes shape of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances Summer Assignment Essay Questions 1. Buffers are substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- ions in solution. CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  HCO3 + H+ a. If the pH of the blood were to become too low, how would this buffer system react? What is the condition of low blood pH called and what are its dangers? b. If the pH of the blood were to become too high, how would this buffer system react? What is the condition of high blood pH called and what are its dangers? 2. Use pp. 86 and 87 in the text and your memory of freshman Biology to answer the following: a. Compare and contrast the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis. b. Explain what happens to an animal cell and a plant cell placed in i. A hypertonic solution ii. An isotonic solution iii. A hypotonic solution 3. This question requires that you apply the scientific method. Numerous environmental variables influence plant growth. Three students each place a seedling of the same genetic variety in the same type of container with equal amounts of soil from the same source. Their goal was to maximize their seedling’s growth by manipulating environmental conditions. Their data are shown below. Day 1 (mass in grams) Day 30 (mass in grams) Student A 4 24 Student B 5 35 Student C 4 64 a. Identify three different environmental variables that could account for the differences in the mass of seedlings at day 30. Then choose one of these variables and design an experiment to test the hypothesis that your variable affects growth of seedlings. b. Discuss the results you would expect if your hypothesis is correct. What responsive variable did you measure, and how do you explain how your chosen test variable affected the responsive variable in your test subjects?

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