Critically evaluate the two scenarios attached based upon the following points:
- Critically evaluate the sample size.
- Critically evaluate the statements for meaningfulness.
- Critically evaluate the statements for statistical significance.
- Based on your evaluation, provide an explanation of the implications for social change.
1. The p-value was slightly above conventional threshold, but was described as
“rapidly approaching significance” (i.e., p =.06).
An independent samples t test was used to determine whether student satisfaction
levels in a quantitative reasoning course differed between the traditional classroom
and on-line environments. The samples consisted of students in four face-to-face
classes at a traditional state university (n = 65) and four online classes offered at
the same university (n = 69). Students reported their level of satisfaction on a five-
point scale, with higher values indicating higher levels of satisfaction. Since the
study was exploratory in nature, levels of significance were relaxed to the .10 level.
The test was significant t(132) = 1.8, p = .074, wherein students in the face-to-face
class reported lower levels of satisfaction (M = 3.39, SD = 1.8) than did those in the
online sections (M = 3.89, SD = 1.4). We therefore conclude that on average,
students in online quantitative reasoning classes have higher levels of satisfaction.
The results of this study are significant because they provide educators with
evidence of what medium works better in producing quantitatively knowledgeable
2. A results report that does not find any effect and also has small sample size
(possibly no effect detected due to lack of power).
A one-way analysis of variance was used to test whether a relationship exists
between educational attainment and race. The dependent variable of education
was measured as number of years of education completed. The race factor had
three attributes of European American (n = 36), African American (n = 23) and
Hispanic (n = 18). Descriptive statistics indicate that on average, European
Americans have higher levels of education (M = 16.4, SD = 4.6), with African
Americans slightly trailing (M = 15.5, SD = 6.8) and Hispanics having on average
lower levels of educational attainment (M = 13.3, SD = 6.1). The ANOVA was not
significant F (2,74) = 1.789, p = .175, indicating there are no differences in
educational attainment across these three races in the population. The results of
this study are significant because they shed light on the current social conversation