You are to discuss the book, a general theory of crime by Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990). As the book covers a huge range of crime and criminality, focus on Chapter 5, 6, and 7 for this writing assignment. Please read chapter 5 (The nature of criminality), chapter 6 (Criminal events and individual propensities), and chapter 7 (The social consequences of low self-control). Your paper should thoroughly answer all questions below using appropriate APA citation style guidelines (double-spaced, no less than four pages but no more than six).
This writing assignment is due by 11th of November (Sunday) at 11:55 pm (PT). See the Course Schedule.
Hirschi later moved away from his classic social control theory (1969) and collaborated with Gottfredson to propose a theory of crime based on one type of control only – self-control. Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) present self-control theory as a general theory that explains all individual differences in the propensity to refrain from or to commit crime, including all acts of crimes and deviance, at all ages, and under all circumstances.
1. Please identify (1) the concept of self-control and (2) six elements of self-control explained by Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) in chapter 5.
2. Discuss Changeability VS. Stability assumption of criminality: Other types of control theories, including Hirschi’s classic social control theory, assume that individual’s involvement in crime and delinquency could be changed by formal/informal social controls, whereas self-control theory proposed by Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) argue that individual with low self-control are more likely to continue to become involved in crime throughout their lives because low self-control is a stable condition that establishes early in life. Do you agree or disagree with the argument? You can use any other sources (journal articles, books, and government documents etc.) to support your side.
Part 2. After sociological positivism replaced biological positivism as the dominant force in criminology, individual correlates of crime were generally ignored in favor of social variables, such as class, culture, and urbanization. A large number of criminologists attempted to explain crime and delinquency of the urban, lower-class, and gang, while age, sex, and race are relatively ignored or simply applied to the crime differences. For example, gender differences were explained by application of a form of labeling theory, according to which the female “script” differs from that offered males. As such, age differences were interpreted as equivalent to a lower-class or deprived status (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). It might appear that age, sex, race, and IQ are biological, not social variables (Gibbons, 1994). 3. No relevant psycho-sociological theories exist to explain age effect on crime. How do we interpret the age effect on crime through psycho-sociological views? (Chapter 6). 4. Please identify and explain several social consequences of low self-control, including delinquent peers, school work, employment, marriage, and family in brief (Chapter 7). Page: 4-4.5 page