# How To Critically Evaluate The Discussion Scenario

Consider the scenario:

• A research paper claims a meaningful contribution to the literature based on finding statistically significant relationships between predictor and response variables. In the footnotes, you see the following statement, “given this research was exploratory in nature, traditional levels of significance to reject the null hypotheses were relaxed to the .10 level.”

How To Critically Evaluate The Discussion Scenario:

Consider this scenario:

A research paper claims a meaningful contribution to the literature based on finding statistically significant relationships between predictor and response variables. In the footnotes, you see the following statement, “given this research was exploratory in nature, traditional levels of significance to reject the null hypotheses were relaxed to the .10 level.

Next, here is an outline that you may consider to respond to this discussion requirement:

Define meaningful in the context of research and statistics and provide a citation from the Course Materials to support your definition. Do not use a dictionary. Hint: The American Statistical Association has a position on meaningfulness.

Define statistical significance and provide a citation to support your definition. Hint: What does statistical significance mean?

Critique the 0.10 level of significance in the context of making a Type I or Type II error:

Define a Type I error in terms of the null hypothesis. Start with, “A Type I error is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is… …”

Define a Type II error in terms of the null hypothesis. Start with, “A Type II error is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is … …”

Hint: The probability of making a Type I error when the level of significance is .05  So what is the probability of make a Type I error when the level of significance is 0.10?

Hint: The probability of making a Type II error is not 1.00 less the level of significance. It is in fact, undefined, but the probability of making a Type ll error when the level of significance is 0.10 is less than when the level of significance is .05. Trust me.

Decide if a 0.10 level of significance is more likely to result in a Type I or Type II error when compared to a level of significance of 0.05.