human biological science 1

Directions

All assignments should have or be the following: (points are deducted for each of these things when

they are incorrect or missing)

FORMAT:

o Typed (hand-written work will not be accepted)

o One inch margins on all sides

o 11 point font (Calibri or Ariel) – do not switch fonts in the middle of your paper

o 1.5 spaced

o Title page – your name, the class, the title

o You may have this in a different font size but please do not have your name on the right

side or the bottom of the paper

o Double-sided printing ok

o Electronic uploads must be in .doc, .docx, or.pdf format

INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION:

o At least 5 sentences each

o Introduce the subject – If the subject is the heart, introduce the heart or heart disease and how

it affects the US population. If you want to write about the case study, write about the case

study.

o Your conclusion should mirror the introduction.

o An introduction and conclusion should be about the subject of the homework.

o Do NOT explain how you feel about the homework or that you learned about the

subject or that you enjoyed the homework set. This is not acceptable.

o Examples of unacceptable sentences would be:

§ “I learned a lot while researching this subject.”

§ “I enjoyed researching about ______.”

§ “I didn’t know that ________ caused __________. Now I do.”

o If you use sentences such as these, you will not receive credit for the introduction or

conclusion.

o Do not say things such as “This exam set is about _______.”

o Acceptable sentences would be:

§ “_________ is a virus that causes __________.”

§ “_________ is a misunderstood process.”

QUESTIONS:

  • No excessive quotations – defined as more than one quote on a page and the quote
  • must be limited to one sentence in length

  • Questions numbered and in correct order
  • If a question has multiple parts, label them as such (a., b., c., etc.)
  • Directions

  • A question will generally take more than one sentence to answer. A good target is at
  • least three sentences.

  • Questions answered fully and in complete sentences
  • Complete sentences contain a subject, a verb, and punctuation
  • o If the subject is singular, the verb should be singular.

    o Examples are the following:

    § We walk down the street.

    § He walks down the street.

  • In scientific writing, you do not use contractions.
  • o Examples of this are:

    § Don’t (use do not)

    § Can’t (use can not)

  • Do not simply copy and paste information from a source. You are too advanced in your
  • education to do that. You can reword any sentence and make it your own. See below for

    more instruction on how to reword sentences.

    REFERENCES AND CITATIONS:

  • At least 5 references given in MLA format
  • o References may include your book (that is only ONE reference), other printed

    sources, web sources, journals, etc.

    o Webmd can be separate references if discussing different topics as can any

    website

    o The following website gives great examples of how to put your references in the

    correct format

    § http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-

    projects/project_mla_format_examples.shtml

    o A sample of a correct reference page can be viewed here

    § http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-

    projects/project_mla_works_cited_examples.shtml

  • Proper citation given within the text in MLA format
  • o Citations in MLA format will have the last name of the author written like

    (Author) or the name of a website like (website.com)

  • In general, each question should have one citation unless it is a question asking for your
  • opinion

  • When writing references for websites, give the FULL HTML address. This means that the
  • web address will start with http://

  • Wikipedia, google, yahoo, biologyflashcards.com, study.com, etc., ARE NOT ACCEPTABLE
  • REFERENCES. You are much too advanced in your educational careers to use simple

    websites that children would use. Acceptable reference examples are Mayo Clinic,

    WebMD, primary literature, etc. TurnItIn will show that you have used these references

    if you

    Directions

    Also remember:

    1. You must turn in an electronic AND a printed copy.

    2. Assignments are due on their due date at the beginning of class. If an assignment is turned

    in late but on the same day, the student will receive a point deduction. If the assignment is

    turned in the next day, the student will receive a zero for the assignment and will not be

    allowed to make up the assignment.

    3. Electronic submissions will be made on Canvas and must be made by the time that the

    paper is due (at the beginning of class on the due date). Electronic submissions are to

    include the body of the assignment only (no title page or references, citations are ok).

    Points will be deducted for not uploading on time. If your upload is a few minutes late, that

    is ok.

    4. The upload link will become available for upload when the due date nears. Although the link

    is active past the due TIME, it is due at the time class begins. It is left active for those who

    may miss the time by a few minutes due to internet connectivity issues, etc.

    5. Each person’s work should be individual. Your work will be checked electronically for

    plagiarism (using someone else’s work that is printed or on the internet) and collusion (using

    someone else’s work in the class). Plagiarizing or colluding could result in a zero for the

    assignment and you will not be allowed to make up the assignment. See the scale below:

    a. Plagiarism in one question will result in a ten point deduction overall and zero

    points for the plagiarized question

    b. Plagiarism in two questions will result in a ten point deduction overall and zero

    points for the plagiarized question

    c. Plagiarism in three questions will result in a zero for the assignment.

    6. You will receive a rubric on Canvas after your paper has been graded which will show you

    exactly how your grade was reached.

    7. You may bring your paper to me up until 30 minutes before the end of my office hours TWO

    DAYS BEFORE the paper is due and I will pregrade it. You do not have to have the paper

    completely finished in order for me to look at it. I will look at it more than once.

    8. You will be graded on grammar and scientific merit. Please use grammar check. Having

    more than three grammatical errors or typos results in a point deduction. This includes the

    use of contractions. It also includes writing the name of the offending microbe incorrectly

    within the paper. (The binomial name should be in italics and the genus capitalized and the

    species lowercased.) Seven grammatical errors results in a larger deduction.

    Directions

    Your paper should follow this format: (Please follow this format so that I can find all of your answers

    easily and not have to search for them. I want you to get the best grade possible. This is not an essay

    test.)

    Title page

    5-sentences (or more) introduction

    1. Question answered in a complete sentence (citation).

    a. Question answered in a complete sentence (citation).

    b. Question answered in a complete sentence (citation).

    2. Question answered in a complete sentence (citation).

    3. Question answered in a complete sentence (citation).

    4. Continue until all questions are answered

    5-sentence (or more) conclusion

    References (in MLA format with full html web addresses)

    PLAGIARISM

    Anytime you have more than four (4) words in a series that were taken directly from a source, it

    is a quote. You should put quotation marks around it and cite where you found it. However, at

    this level of your education, you should have almost no quotes in your writing unless it is from a

    famous figure of note like President Kennedy. Anyone can copy and paste. For test purposes,

    you need to show the professor that you understand the material, not that you can copy and

    paste an answer. In order to do that, you need to research to find the answer, understand the

    information, and put it in your own words. Then give the author the glory for writing the

    information down so that you could understand.

    The only time that the “four words in a series” does not apply in paper is when you are listing

    things like symptoms.

    An example is given below. The citations and reference are in the correct format.

    Question: The microbe Clostridium tetani is responsible for what type of infection? What are the

    symptoms?

    A Google search for “Clostridium tetani” reveals several sites. The first is Wikipedia. That is NOT an

    acceptable source. Skip it. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC.gov) is a great site. Go there.

    The direct quote from the CDC site says

    Directions

    “Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium

    Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal

    muscles. The muscle stiffness usually involves the jaw (lockjaw) and neck and then becomes

    generalized.”

    Does that sound like you talking? No. That is not how you sound in person or in print. Additionally, if

    you put that, it is simply copy and paste which is plagiarism. This is not answering a question with your

    knowledge. This act is stealing and will cause you to receive a zero.

    You can rewrite this several ways. In each of these ways, I will know that you understood what you read.

    If you copied and pasted, I assume that you could not describe tetanus after doing this research and

    possibly did not fully read what you copied and pasted.

    What would be considered plagiarizing:

    1. Tetanus is an acute, fatal disease caused by an exotoxin made by the bacterium C. tetani.

    Characteristics are generalized rigidity and spasms of skeletal muscles. The muscle stiffness

    usually involves the jaw (lockjaw) and neck and then is generalized.

    Here’s the original with highlighted areas showing what I used that was the same. Brackets are around

    the new words I replaced to make it “my own.”

    “Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin [made] produced by the bacterium

    Clostridium [C.] tetani. [It is] characterized [characteristics are] by generalized rigidity and [convulsive]

    spasms of skeletal muscles. The muscle stiffness usually involves the jaw (lockjaw) and neck and then [is]

    becomes generalized.”

    2. Tetanus is acute and can be fatal disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium

    Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by rigidity and spasms of skeletal muscles. The muscle

    stiffness usually involves the jaw (lockjaw) and neck and then becomes generalized.

    “Tetanus is an acute, [and can be] often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium

    Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles.

    The muscle stiffness usually involves the jaw (lockjaw) and neck and then becomes generalized.”

    3. The disease Tetanus is acute and often fatal. caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium

    Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal

    muscles. Lockjaw is muscle stiffness in the jaw and neck and then becomes generalized.

    Directions

    “[The disease} Tetanus is an acute, [and] often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by

    the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive

    spasms of skeletal muscles. [Lockjaw] is muscle stiffness in the jaw (lockjaw) and neck and then

    becomes generalized.”

    For the above, I copied and pasted then removed a few words from the sentence. I can do that with

    any subject in the world and learn nothing at al. The point is for you to learn and to show me that

    you, in fact, learned.

    What would be good and no plagiarism detected:

    1. Clostridium tetani causes tetanus. This is an infection which results in rigidity and muscle

    spasms that usually start in the jaw and neck then move to the rest of the body. (Centers for

    Disease Control)

    2. Tetanus is an infection caused by the microbe Clostridium tetani. When someone has tetanus,

    they will experience muscle spasms that start in the jaw and neck then move to the rest of the

    body. (Centers for Disease Control)

    3. The main symptoms of tetanus are muscle spasms that start in the jaw and neck. These spasms

    then move to the rest of the body. Tetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani. (Centers for Disease

    Control)

    4. Clostridium tetani releases an exotoxin that causes muscle spasms. The spasms lead to rigidity

    of muscles in the neck and jaw and then spread to the rest of the body. This infection is called

    tetanus. (Centers for Disease Control; Centers for Disease Control)

    Works Cited

    Centers for Disease Control. Tetanus. 7 July 2014. 16 September 2014.


    .

    Some sobering statistics are available concerning an infection that is

    preventable. It is estimated that 1.1 million people in the US have it and 15 percent

    of those individuals do not know it. In 2018, almost 38,000 new cases were reported.

    25% of infections occur in younger people between the ages of 13-24. (Centers for

    Disease Control and Prevention) And statistically, the most at risk are African

    American men and Latino men. 52% of the new infections are here in the

    Southeastern US. One of the most concerning issues is that once a person is diagnosed,

    many will not continue treatment in spite of the fact that the disease is deadly. You

    have probably guessed that the infection is HIV/AIDS. The most at risk group?

    Homosexual and bisexual men. But does that mean if you are heterosexual or

    Caucasian that you are “safe” from infection? Of course not.

    An article from the Washington Post “In D.C., HIV infection rate nearly doubles

    for some poor black women” by Lena Sun reported in 2012 that in the poorer

    neighborhoods of DC, where most individuals are making less than $10,000/year or

    are unemployed, the HIV infection rate for heterosexual African American women is

    12.1 percent. (Sun) Overall, in DC considering all neighborhoods and all sexual

    orientations, there is a 3% infection rate. A 1% infection rate is classified as an

    epidemic by the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control. The

    infection rate seen in DC is similar to that seen in West Africa and Haiti. (Tanne)

    As you answer the following questions, make sure that you do not simply answer in

    just a few words (“yes” or “no” is not an acceptable answer). Answer in complete

    sentences and it should take at least three sentences to answer a particular question.

    Most questions will take more.

    Questions:

    1. Name three ways HIV can be contracted. Name three ways HIV is not

    contracted. Explain why HIV can be contracted/not contracted in the ways you

    have mentioned.

    2. The stage of HIV infection is closely monitored by a person’s viral load. A

    patient is tested by health professionals with a particular blood test to

    determine their viral load. Describe what viral load is and the blood test used.

    (The CDC website is a good reference for this.)

    3. If a viral load is “undetectable” does that mean the person does not have HIV

    anymore? Explain.

    4. Describe the type of cells that HIV normally infects. In your description

    provide the normal function of these cells.

    5. Describe acute infection including

    a. What are the symptoms?

    b. How long does this phase last?

    c. Do treatments work at this time?

    d. Is the patient at risk of infecting others?

    e. What is their viral load?

    f. What is their T cell count?

    6. Describe clinical latency including

    a. What are the symptoms?

    b. How long does this phase last?

    c. Do treatments work at this time?

    d. Is the patient at risk of infecting others?

    e. What is their viral load?

    f. What is their T cell count?

    7. Describe AIDS including

    a. What are the symptoms?

    b. How long does this phase last?

    c. Do treatments work at this time?

    d. Is the patient at risk of infecting others?

    e. What is their viral load?

    f. What is their T cell count?

    8. Is there an HIV vaccine? Why or why not?

    9. Describe the current treatment for HIV.

    10. Provide a description of PrEP (Truvada)? Is Truvada considered to be a

    vaccine? Who should take PrEP? Does it replace other preventative measures?

    11. OraQuick is an at-home HIV test. Describe how it used and its accuracy. Is it

    possible to get a “false positive” or a “false negative” result? What would this

    mean?

    12. Prevention of HIV

    a. Name four preventive measures that can be taken to ensure that you

    do not contract HIV.

    b. Distinguish between the following types of condoms and their

    effectiveness in preventing the spread of HIV: latex, polyurethane,

    lambskin

    c. If you are already infected with HPV or genital herpes, does this change

    your chances of contracting HIV?

    13. Name three places in Tallahassee where you can be tested for free, or for a

    reduced fee, for STDs including HIV. Provide all STDs included in the panel of

    testing. Additionally, provide a list of any services provided after a person has

    been diagnosed with an S

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