Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milk

Question 1 

Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology?

 

To describe
the health status of the population

 

To fund   new public health programs

 

To explain
the etiology of disease

 

To predict
the occurrence of disease

 

To control
the distribution of disease

Question 2 

Which of the following activities characterizes an epidemiologic approach (as opposed to a clinical approach)?

 

Description   of a single individual’s symptoms

 

Surveillance   of a population

 

Treatment   of a patient with diagnosed illness

 

A and   C

Question 3 

In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred to:

 

dysentery

 

tuberculosis

 

smallpox

 

edema

Question 4 

Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?

 

Description   of specific signs and symptoms in a patient

 

Description   of seasonal trends in disease occurrence

 

Examination   of disease occurrence among population groups

 

Demonstration   of geographic variations in disease frequency

Question 5 

Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflect:

 

seasonal   variations in cases of influenza.

 

the   fact that influenza is a disappearing disorder.

 

long-term   changes in mortality trends.

 

both   A and B

Question 6 

The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for (give the best answer):

 

tracking   down unusual disease outbreaks in the United States and foreign countries.

 

collecting   routine epidemiologic data for local health departments.

 

printing   epidemiologic reports for members of the community.

 

reporting   suspicious bioterrorism agents to governmental agencies

Question 7 

John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera:

 

was   the father of modern biostatistics.

 

established   postulates for transmission of infectious disease.

 

was   an early epidemiologist who used natural experiments.

 

argued   that the environment was associated with diseases such as malaria.

Question 8 

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milk

 

Primary   Prevention Active

 

Primary   Prevention Passive

 

Secondary   Prevention

 

Tertiary   Prevention

Question 9 

Using epidemiology for operational research involves:

 

study   of community health services

 

study   of risks to the individual

 

study   of disease syndromes

 

study   of disease symptoms

Question 10 

Increases in lung cancer mortality, especially among women, illustrate which of the following trends in disease occurrence?

 

A   residual disorder

 

A new   epidemic disorder

 

A   persistent disorder

 

A   disappearing disorder

Question 11 

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by screening for breast cancer

 

Primary   Prevention Active

 

Primary   Prevention Passive

 

Secondary   Prevention

 

Tertiary   Prevention

Question 12 

In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 members of the population for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate due to I & P decline?

 

100%

 

1000%

 

90%

 

9000%
Question 13 

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by nutritional counseling for pregnant women

 

Primary   Prevention Active

 

Primary   Prevention Passive

 

Secondary   Prevention

 

Tertiary   Prevention

Question 14 

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by immunization against rubella

 

Primary   Prevention Active

 

Primary   Prevention Passive

 

Secondary   Prevention

 

Tertiary   Prevention

Question 15 

The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:

 

the   mortality rate from that disease in the 0-4 age group.

 

a   spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year.

 

the   period prevalence for that disease during the past year.

 

the   incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of   time.

Question 16 

Beach City has a rising population of 500,000 robust, fertile males and 450,000 robust, fertile females. If there were 4,000 live births, 3 fetal deaths, and 40 maternal deaths, what is the crude birth rate?

 

4,000/500,000   × 1,000

 

4,000/450,000   × 1,000

 

4,000/950,000   × 1,000

 

4,003/950,000   × 1,000

 

3,997/950,000   × 1,000

Question 17 

An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:
 

Number of skaters in   Metroville during any given month

12,000

 

Roller-skating   injuries in Metroville

600

 

Total number of   residents injured from roller-skating

1,800

 

Total number of   deaths from roller-skating

90

 

Total number of   deaths from all causes

900

 

The crude death rate for all causes was:

 

90/600   × 100,000

 

900/100,000   × 100,000

 

90/1,800   × 100,000

 

90/900   × 100,000

Question 18 

Determining workload and planning the scope of facilities and manpower needs, particularly for chronic disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

 

This   is a use primarily for incidence data.

 

This   is a use primarily for prevalence data.

 

This   application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

 

This   is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 19 

An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:
 

Number of skaters in   Metroville during any given month

12,000

 

Roller-skating   injuries in Metroville

600

 

Total number of   residents injured from roller-skating

1,800

 

Total number of   deaths from roller-skating

90

 

Total number of   deaths from all causes

900

 

The proportional mortality ratio (%) due to roller-skating was:

 

90/600   × 100

 

90/100,000   × 100

 

90/1,800   × 100

 

90/900   × 100

Question 20 

The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

 

This   is a use primarily for incidence data.

 

This   is a use primarily for prevalence data.

 

This   application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

 

This   is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data

Question 21 

The incidence of a disease is five times greater in men than in women, but the prevalence shows no sex difference. The most likely explanation is that:

 

the   mortality rate is greater in women.

 

the   case fatality rate is greater in women.

 

the   duration of the disease is greater in women.

 

women   receive less adequate medical care for the disease

Question 22 

To provide a direct estimate of the risk of developing a disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

 

This   is a use primarily for incidence data.

 

This   is a use primarily for prevalence data.

 

This   application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

 

This   is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 23 

A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the following?

 

Positive   declaration

 

Negative   declaration

 

Implicit   question

 

Explicit   question

Question 24 

Age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by sex in the United States generally show the following sex differences:

 

Rates   for males are higher than rates for females from birth to age 85 and older.

 

Rates   for females are higher than rates for males from birth to age 85 and older.

 

Rates   for males are higher than rates for females from age 6 to age 85 and older.

 

Rates   for males are equal to rates for females during the first 5 years of life.

Question 25 

The use of GIS may be thought of as following the heritage of:

 

Hippocrates

 

Graunt

 

Snow

 

Koch

 

Semmelweis

Question 26 

Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the breeder hypothesis for schizophrenia?

 

The   conditions of life in lower-class society favor its development.

 

The   conditions of life in upper-class society favor its development.

 

The   illness leads to the clustering of psychosis in the impoverished areas of a   city.

 

The   illness is associated with increases in creative talents, which contribute to   wealth-enhancing achievements.

Question 27 

Lung cancer mortality among women is increasing faster than among men. What factor(s) would most likely account for this increased cancer rate?

 

Younger   women are smoking more.

 

Older   women are smoking more.

 

Women   are smoking less.

 

Men   are smoking more

Question 28 

According to classic studies, age-standardized morbidity rates in the United States for acute conditions, chronic conditions, and disability due to acute conditions show the following sex differences:

 

Rates   for males are higher than rates for females.

 

Rates   for females are higher than rates for males.

 

Rates   for males are equal to the rates for females.

 

Females   have higher rates of hearing impairment than males.

Question 29 

Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:

 

admission   rates of foreign-born persons to mental hospitals were lower than for   native-born persons

 

diseases   found in less developed regions are no longer a problem in the United States

 

immunization   programs in developing countries have been highly successful

 

some   migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to   vaccine-preventable diseases

Question 30 

Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia?

 

The   conditions of life in lower-class society favor its development.

 

The   conditions of life in upper-class society favor its development.

 

The   illness leads to the clustering of psychosis in the impoverished areas of a   city.

 

The   illness is associated with increases in creative talents, which contribute to   wealth-enhancing achievements.

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