proofreading of paper, making corrections when necessary

paper is already basically done

professor stated that it should be around 10 pages. My paper is 8. This paper is due within less than 8 hours.

I am looking for two things-

proofreading of paper, making corrections when necessary

possibly being able to extend the paper by a page.

Running head: THE EFFECTS OF MATCHING THE ADVERTISEMENT MODEL’S RACE 1

2

The Effects of Matching the Advertisement Model’s Race to the Target Demographic

Xxx xxxxx

University xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

June 12, 2019

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that success in advertising in the United States relies on matching the

advertisement model’s race to the target audiences race. The average representation of blacks in

American advertising is relatively the same as the total black population in the United States,

13%. But why is it that only 3% of blacks in Brazil are represented in Brazilian advertisement

when they comprise nearly 50% of their total population?  In this research proposal, a method is

introduced to measure the effects of matching an advertisement’s model’s race to the target

audiences race regarding purchase intentions. Nine hundred Brazilian men are gathered, and

separated into three groups of 300 people, with each group being their respective race: whites,

blacks, and mixed-race. A movie trailer is provided, and is manipulated only in the regard that

the race of the protagonist changes. The three groups are then divided once again into three

sub-categories of 100 each, and for each sub-section of each race are shown each type of movie

trailer. A post-survey is then administered using both open-ended and close-ended questions on a

7-point Likert scale to gauge participant’s purchase intent.

Introduction

As the global population becomes increasingly more diverse, and marketing

efforts now having the ability to spread across multiple countries and cultures, scholars

and practitioners are in search to better understand how social context and individual

characteristics influence consumer’s response to marketing efforts. (Grier, 2001)

Studies have shown that in the United States, matching the advertising’s model race to

the target population is an effective marketing strategy (Jones, 2010). However, there is

limited knowledge on the correlation between advertising persuasiveness and race

outside of the United States. For this study, a country that is similar in diversity is

required. In this paper, we propose a research method that will measure the effect of the

advertisement model’s race on purchase intent in Brazil.

For the entirety of our existence, persuasion has been one of the most

contributing factors of how we have succeeded and advanced as a species. From

primitive times of bartering for food and delegating tasks, to modern times of driving

marketing efforts and advancements in research, persuasion has been key to our

success as an ever-growing society. Persuasion exists everywhere. Although one may

not be aware of it, companies and their respective marketers solely exist to develop

new, efficient and effective ways to persuade the general population, either to influence

and change certain views and beliefs, or to drive sales toward a product. Whether it

may be looking up at the fast food menu, or simply scrolling through one’s social media

feed, persuasion efforts are can be found in nearly every aspect of our daily lives.

Persuasion, or the act or persuading can be explained in many different ways,

but is often synonymous with concepts such as influencing, negotiating, or even

compliance. Persuasion is often defined by the process by which a person’s

attitudes or behavior are, without duress, influenced by communications from other

people (Lotha, 2015). Persuasion is also defined as the symbolic process in which

communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behavior regarding an

issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice (Perloff, 2017).

From this definition, we can derive some key points that must occur in an attempt of

persuasion. First, it involves a deliberate and intentional attempt to influence another

individual. Secondly, a successful persuasion attempt must be self-persuaded by their

own free choice and not coerced.

The United States has been commonly known to the world as the “melting pot”,

which speaks to the mass amounts of diversity represented by the country. Correlational

studies of advertisement effectiveness and race in the United States have already been

done by numerous researchers, however there is little information regarding the

correlation outside of the United States. Within the United States, the number of blacks

portrayed in advertising was equated to roughly the same percentage of blacks in

America, 13% (Bowen & Schmid, 1997). In Brazil, however, while the black and

mixed-raced population comprise nearly 47%, the number of blacks and mixed-raced

people represented in advertising is only 3% (Subervi-Velez & Oliveira, 1991). Why is it

that in the United States advertisers can find success in matching races, but in Brazil

not? If the Brazilian consumer base reacted the way that the North American population

does, marketers and advertisers could reap significant rewards by segmenting the

Brazilian population and by utilizing racially diverse models in advertisements directed

toward racially matched populations (Jones, 2010).

Race holds a slightly different meaning in Brazil than in the United States. In the

United States, race is generally categorized by genetics and ancestry, which cannot

change, as well as there is a clear separation between white and black. However, race,

is considered in many cases as a social or cultural construct, and not just a biological

classification. In the case of Brazil, being either black or white is compared to where one

would stand on a spectrum (Jones, 2010).

In 2001, researchers from Stanford University sought to study the influence of

social status on group identity and advertising persuasiveness. Central to this study is

the idea of the distinctiveness theory, which states that an individual’s distinctive

characteristics in relation to others in that environment will be more salient to the

individual than more common traits (McGuire, 1984). This theory then implies that

targeted advertisements are the most effective when the targeted population is a

numeric minority (Grier, 2001). A total of 176 black and white South African women

were recruited for the study, with half of the population being from Johannesburg, a

majority black city, and the other half from Cape Town, where white are the majority.

Advertisements were manipulated only by switching the race of the model in identical

advertisements. Dependent variables that were measured included ethnic salience,

racial importance, and personal perceptions of social status. The results showed that

when social dimensions are incorporated into the advertisement, targeted ads can be

effective even in situations when the targeted population is a numeric majority (Grier,

2001). This research has numerous similarities and a number of common goals as our

proposed research topic does, but there are great differences between South Africa and

Brazil, most notably being difference in race population distribution.

But why is it that even with the Brazilian black population nearly amounting to

half of the total population, blacks are represented in only 3% of all Brazilian

advertisements? The relationship between the advertisement model’s race and

consumer purchase intent will be examined by altering the advertisement only in the

fashion of changing the model’s ethnicity. For the proposed research, we predict that by

matching the model race with the sample’s race, purchase intent will be higher than if

the model race was improperly matched with the sample’s race.

Method

Participants

The total amount of participants needed for this study would be 900 male participants,

from Sao Paolo, with the total amount of participants being evenly divided into three groups

based on ethnicity; white, black, or mixed. It is important to note the in this context, mixed-race

denotes a mixture between white and black. The ideal age range for this study would be 25-54

years, which represent the majority of the Brazilian male population. In a best case scenario, all

participants would be middle-class, with no disabilities, heterosexual, have at least completed

high school, and have at least lived in Brazil for 20 years. Participants would be chosen via

internet survey asking to participate in an in-person marketing effort to help promote an

upcoming movie production. It would be clearly stated that completing the in-person section of

the research would result in an incentive, with the participant receiving promotional material in

the form of free admission to any upcoming movie. Correctly classifying the participants is a

necessity; once arrived at the testing location, participants will be asked to fill another brief

survey regarding important demographic material. If the results of the online survey differ from

the brief in-person survey, the participant would carry on with the experimentation process, with

the results being omitted. If by any case any participant chooses a demographic that researchers

decide to be observably and reasonably false, the final results of that specific experimentation

will be omitted as well. Correct participant self-identity is crucial to this study.  Research will

continue until total final completed surveys reach 300 for each sample group.

Materials

An online survey must be created to begin the selecting process for choosing participants.

We will work in conjunction with top brands in Brazil in order to have access to their mailing

list. E-mails will be sent to the population of Sao Paolo, Brazil. The e-mail will be designed to

emphasize the incentive in order to successfully fill the needed amount of participants. The

online survey will be structured in a way that promotes the lowest amount of reactivity, but still

allows room for researcher control. The online survey will ask no more than ten questions, all of

which will be closed-ended response forms regarding information of the participant’s

demographics such as race, age, and socio-economic status. The pre-survey will be administered

in-person before exposure to the advertisement material. This survey will likely be an exact

replica of the online survey in order to verify the information regarding the participant. We will

work also in partnership with a local indie short film production company, who will construct a

short, two-minute trailer for one of their upcoming film projects. This, in a perfect environment,

will be exploited only in the manner where the only the protagonist is changed, and nothing else.

Three trailers will be provided by the film company, one with a white protagonist, black

protagonist, and a mixed-race protagonist. Important notes about the model include that the

model face for each race must be easily and clearly identifiable as either white, black or

mixed-race with absolutely minimal racial ambiguity. Secondly, all three models must rate

similarly on a scale of attractiveness, intelligence, and likeableness. A mass pre-test of the

general Brazilian population is necessary in order to gauge this. A post-survey would then be

necessary to document the effect on purchase intent for the participant. This survey would

include both open and close-ended questions, as well as some questions that involve the Likert

scale in order to properly gauge the participants thoughts on the trailer. This survey would also

incorporate some simple comprehension questions in order to ensure that the participant was

cognizant throughout the trailer.  The last needed material is the incentives, which will be

dispersed in the form of a physical voucher as stated before provided in conjunction with the

local movie theatre management.

Procedure

This experiment design is 3×3, which required each race group to be exposed to each type

of trailer. Each sample race group would then be further divided into three more denominations,  

W1 , W2 , W3 , for the white sample, B1 , B2 , B3 for the black sample, and M1 , M2 , M3 for the

mixed sample. All sub-categories will have an equal distribution of 100 participants. All

subscript “one” groups will be exposed to the trailer with white protagonist, subscript “two”

groups the black protagonist, and subscript “three” the mixed-race protagonist. The sub-groups

that are shown their own race of protagonist will be considered our control, and will serve as our

baseline for comparison of data. The dependent variables include purchase intent, from which we

derive three operational definitions, the desire for more information regarding the film, the

thought of considering to purchase tickets, and the desire of purchasing the ticket if the

participant had the money, all of which would be measured through a series of agree/disagree, or

like/dislike questions using a 7-point Likert scale on the post-survey. The independent variable

would be the model’s race of the trailer. We will attempt our best to avoid confounding variables

such as eliminating pre-existing implicit racial biases (racism) by properly screening through the

online and pre-surveys, matching the race of the participant with the administrator, and

potentially allowing our scheduling process to be extremely flexible in regards to the

participant’s availability. The best case scenario would be the participant to arrive on scene in a

relatively “good” mood.

After the online survey, participants will then arrive to the testing scene where the

pre-survey and post-survey will be administered by a research assistant that is of the same race as

of the participant. Once participants are exposed to the movie trailer, the research assistant will

then administer the post-survey. The post-survey will be mostly comprised of questions with the

intention to properly gauge their attentiveness, comprehension, and thoughts about the trailer. It

is vital that the post-survey strikes the balance between the ability to obtain information from the

participant while the participant is still fully engaged and has not lost interest. At the end of the

post-survey will be included an optional section where open-ended questions are asked in order

to capture potential additional insight on the participant’s thoughts. Participant’s responses to the

additional questions regarding comprehension of the trailer will determine whether or not their

results will be included in the final results.  During the end of this phase, we will also employ a

manipulation check, and ask the participants what the potential purpose of this study was. If the

participants guess race and or racial biases, their responses will be omitted from the final

results.

References

Bowen, L. & Schmid, J. (1997) Minority Presence and Portrayal in Mainstream Advertising: An Update. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 74(1), pp. 134-146 https://doi.org/10.1177/107769909707400111

Grier, S. & Deshpande, R. (2010) Social Dimensions of consumer distinctiveness: The influence of social status on group identity and advertising persuasion. Journal of Marketing Research38(2), pp. 216-224. http://dx.doi.org.liblink.uncw.edu/10.1509/jmkr.38.2.216.18843

Johnson, G. & Grier, S. (2013) ‘What about the intended consequences?’: Examining the effect of race-stereotyped portrayals on advertising effectiveness. Journal of Advertising41(3),

pp. 91-105.\ Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.liblink.uncw.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=9&sid=d7ae66e8-a79d-4b0d-88dc-035800b9dba4%40pdc-v-sessmgr02

Jones, V. (2010) It’s Not Black and White: Advertising and Race in Cultural Context. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(1), pp. 45-64 https://doi.org/10.1080/08911760903442143

Lotha, G. (Ed.). (n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica

Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/persuasion-psychology

McGuire, W. (1984), Search for the Self: Going Beyond Self-Esteem and the Reactive Self. Personality and the Prediction of Behavior, pp. 73-120.

Perloff, R. (2017) The Dynamics of Persuasion, Communication, and Attitudes in the 21st Century. Routledge Communication Series

Subervi-Velez, F. & Oliveira, O. (1991) Blacks (and other ethnicities) in Brazilian television commercials: An exploratory study. Comunicacao e Sociedade, 10

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