Review the Torraco article in this week’s Learning Resources on writing an integrative literature review.

Learning Resources

This page contains the Learning Resources for this week. Be sure to scroll down the page to see all of this week’s assigned Learning Resources. To access select media resources, please use the streaming media player below.


· Course Text:  Browne, M. N., & Keeley, S. M. (2018). Asking the right questions: A guide to critical thinking (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. 


o Chapter 5, “What Are the Value and Descriptive Assumptions?”


· Torraco, R. J. (2005). Writing integrative literature reviews: Guidelines and examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 356-367.
Use the ProQuest Central database, and search using the article’s Document ID: 887946431. 

Web Sites

· Critically Analyzing Information Sources

· Evaluating Web Sites: Criteria and Tools 

· Evaluation Criteria: The Good, The Bad & The Ugly, or, Why It’s a Good Idea to Evaluate Web Sources

· Writing a Psychology Literature Review (PDF)

· Peer Reviewed Journals

Application: Critical Resource Review

The literature review provides the empirical justification for the project. Literature reviews involve collecting resources directly related to the selected problem, critically analyzing those resources, and synthesizing them into a coherent narrative. The critical analysis not only considers the validity of the argument, but the credibility of the source as well. Where did the information come from? Was it the author’s personal opinion? Did he or she conduct a study or analyze data? These questions should be considered in completing a critical review of literature.

In this Application Assignment you will collect resources related to your problem statement and demonstrate your skills in critical analysis.

To prepare:

· Review the Torraco article in this week’s Learning Resources on writing an integrative literature review. 

· View the links on how to critically evaluate resources. 

· Watch the course media segment on “Literature Reviews” to gain a general understanding of the purpose of the review. 

· Find 10-12 research resources related to your problem statement (including at least 4 peer-reviewed journal articles). 

· Review your problem statement. 

The assignment:

In 2-3 pages, please complete the following:

· Briefly synthesize one of the resources you selected. 

· Critically analyze that resource. 

· Cite 10-12 resources for you literature review. Four of these resources must be peer-reviewed journal articles.

Problem Statement 

Substance use disorders and addictions are becoming a common challenge within the social construct in todays’ society. It is vying with the normative of social structures that support good behavior and sustaining from using drugs. A drug is any that substance that is consumed by a person, that may change typical substantial capacities. A medication is a compound substance utilized in the treatment, fix, anticipation, or finding or used to generally upgrade physical or mental prosperity. Medications might be endorsed for a restricted term, or all the time for perpetual issue. Recreational medications are synthetic substances that influence the focal sensory system, for example, narcotics or drugs. They might be utilized for apparent gainful consequences for discernment, awareness, character, and conduct. A few medications can cause dependence and habituation. Numerous regular substances, for example, brews, wine, and a few mushrooms, obscure the line among nourishment and medications, as when ingested they influence the working of both the brain and body. When an individual fall ill due to drug use (which they often do), it becomes very hard to treat them. More specifically, when an individual takes a drug overdose, it becomes hard to assist them because they cannot express themselves after passing out.

As mentioned above, the number one barrier to treatment stems from the inability of patients to talk to physicians the moment they come into the emergency room. When a physician is not able to speak to a patient to find out whatever he or she got into his or her system, it becomes hard to conduct first aid effectively. In such a situation, what often happens is that the physician must perform the first aid quickly and screen his or her blood to determine the exact poison that is causing a problem. Which again is a challenge because today, people become addicted to a multiplicity of drugs and medicines. It requires a dreadful part of an investment to make sense of what number of kinds of medications a patient has been on (Straus, Glasziou, Richardson & Haynes, 2018).

Many different factors determine the effectiveness of treatment. The problem here is that the barriers to treatment delay it and make treatment untimely. When a physician conducts first aid but is yet to fully help the patient realize vital signs because of diagnostic challenges, response to an emergency may be delayed, and a patient’s life may be in danger.

Lack of communication is the first barrier to treatment because drug and substance abusers have slurred speech, and at times, they cannot completely talk. A majority of drug and substance abusers do not use in front of their families. As such, it becomes difficult for a relative to tell the doctor what the patient used. Besides, the drugs abused (even if they are in the form of pills) are never preserved in labeled bottles. The use of multiple drugs and substances for the sake of realizing a dopamine rush later causes a multiplicity of conditions or disorders. Afterward, what follows is a diagnosis of confusion since comorbid disorders may be complicated to deal with (Djulbegovic and Guyatt, 2017).


Evidence-Based Practice and Evidence-Based Medicine is yet to be embraced fully in the medical community. Health care professionals are, however, to be trained on matters revolving around Evidence-Based Practice and Evidence-Based Medicine. It will take a considerable amount of time before health caregivers figure out how Evidence-Based Practice and Evidence-Based Medicine can be used to deal with the multitude of challenges that surface

when a drug and substance abuse patient is brought forward to the casualty of a hospital. 


Djulbegovic, B., & Guyatt, G. H., (2017). Progress in evidence-based medicine: a quarter century on. The Lancet, 390(10092), 415-423.

Straus, S. E., Glasziou, P., Richardson, W. S., & Haynes, R. B. (2018). Evidence-Based Medicine E-Book: How to Practice and Teach EBM. Elsevier Health Sciences.