The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, an

HSahsh1212 Question 1 

One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate.

 

informed   consent

 

voluntary   consent

 

beneficence

 

primary   agent

Question 2 

The biological cause of a problem or disease is known as ____.

 

hypothesis

 

etiology

 

consent

 

agent

Question 3 

The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to ____.

 

understand   causation

 

establish   risk factors

 

track   trends and determine if particular diseases are increasing or decreasing in   the population

 

describe   the population demographically by age, race, sex, education, and other   relevant indicators

Question 4 

HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.

 

non-modifiable   risk factor

 

pandemic

 

modifiable   risk factor

 

distribution

Question 5 

Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.

 

risk   factors

 

health-related   states

 

agents

 

determinants

Question 6 

The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.

 

transmission

 

pandemic

 

endemic

 

epidemic

Question 7 

A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.

 

epidemic

 

endemic

 

outbreak

 

epidemic   threshold

Question 8 

For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can range from a few months to many years.

 

latency

 

incubation

 

temporal

 

plausibility

Question 9 

Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.

 

indirect   causes

 

direct   causes

 

dependent   variables

 

independent   variables

Question 10 

A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.

 

predictive   value

 

diagnosis

 

prevention

 

screening   test

Question 11 

Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.

 

primary

 

secondary

 

tertiary

 

quaternary

Question 12 

The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.

 

alternate   explanations

 

risk   factors

 

results

 

coherence

Question 13 

The aspect of consistency means that ____.

 

an   increasing amount of exposure increases the risk

 

the   association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge

 

the   association is consistent when results are repeated in studies in different   settings using different methods

 

the   findings agree with currently accepted understanding of pathological   processes

Question 14 

While Austin Bradford Hill is well-known for his work in developing guidelines for establishing causality for studies of non-infectious diseases, his other contributions to the field of epidemiology and ____ are remarkable.

 

psychology

 

statistics

 

sociology

 

mathematics

Question 15 

The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.

 

prevalence   proportion

 

incidence   rate

 

contingency

 

case   severity

Question 16 

The number of existing cases of disease  divided by the population is known as ____.

 

crude   rate

 

person   time

 

incidence   rate

 

prevalence   proportion

Question 17 

A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.

 

period   prevalence

 

prevalence   proportion

 

point   prevalence

 

rate

Question 18 

Prevalence equals ____.

 

incidence   times duration of disease

 

incidence   divided by duration of disease

 

incidence   plus duration of disease

 

incidence   divided by duration of disease times 100

Question 19 

Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated from a restaurant during a one week period.  Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.

 

incidence

 

prevalence

 

suspect   case

 

case

Question 20 

While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.

 

1,000

 

10,000

 

100,000

 

1,000,000

Question 21 

The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.

 

proportion

 

rate

 

incidence   rate

 

specific   rate

Question 22 

A table in epidemiology that arranges numbers to allow the comparison of exposure and outcome is called a ____ table.

 

proportion

 

contingency

 

specific

 

crude

Question 23 

A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.

 

convalescent   carrier

 

passive   carrier

 

active   carrier

 

inactive   carrier

Question 24 

One of the most important emerging problems with the control of infectious diseases has to do with ____.

 

deadly   parasitic infections

 

antibiotic   resistant viral infections

 

antibiotic   resistant bacterial infections

 

vaccine   resistant viral infections

Question 25 

The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.

 

healthy   or passive carrier

 

pregnant   carrier

 

convalescent   carrier

 

active   carrier

Question 26 

Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.

 

90;   70

 

98;   50

 

50;   90

 

20;   80

Question 27 

If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.

 

multidrug   resistant drug or super-drug

 

multidrug   resistant bacterium or superbug

 

resistant   bacterium or streptococcus bacterium

 

killer   bacterium or deadly bacterium

Question 28 

____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.

 

Horizontal   transmission

 

Vertical   transmission

 

Quick   transmission

 

Polar   transmission

Question 29 

There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.

 

a   definite increase

 

a   slight decrease

 

hardly   any change

 

a   clear decline

Question 30 

____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.

 

Horizontal   transmission

 

Vertical   transmission

 

Lateral   transmission

 

Polar   transmission

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