One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate.
The biological cause of a problem or disease is known as ____.
The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to ____.
establish risk factors
track trends and determine if particular diseases are increasing or decreasing in the population
describe the population demographically by age, race, sex, education, and other relevant indicators
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.
non-modifiable risk factor
modifiable risk factor
Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.
The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.
A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.
For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can range from a few months to many years.
Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.
A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.
Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.
The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.
The aspect of consistency means that ____.
an increasing amount of exposure increases the risk
the association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge
the association is consistent when results are repeated in studies in different settings using different methods
the findings agree with currently accepted understanding of pathological processes
While Austin Bradford Hill is well-known for his work in developing guidelines for establishing causality for studies of non-infectious diseases, his other contributions to the field of epidemiology and ____ are remarkable.
The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.
The number of existing cases of disease divided by the population is known as ____.
A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.
Prevalence equals ____.
incidence times duration of disease
incidence divided by duration of disease
incidence plus duration of disease
incidence divided by duration of disease times 100
Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated from a restaurant during a one week period. Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.
While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.
The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.
A table in epidemiology that arranges numbers to allow the comparison of exposure and outcome is called a ____ table.
A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.
One of the most important emerging problems with the control of infectious diseases has to do with ____.
deadly parasitic infections
antibiotic resistant viral infections
antibiotic resistant bacterial infections
vaccine resistant viral infections
The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.
healthy or passive carrier
Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.
If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.
multidrug resistant drug or super-drug
multidrug resistant bacterium or superbug
resistant bacterium or streptococcus bacterium
killer bacterium or deadly bacterium
____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.
There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.
a definite increase
a slight decrease
hardly any change
a clear decline
____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.