The process known as gastrulation results in the formation of

1.        Free ears in dogs are controlled by dominant allele (F), and attached ears are controlled by the recessive allele (f). In addition, Short dogs is due to a dominant allele(S), and long hair is due to a recessive allele (s). Which of the following is the genotype of the dogs with free ears and short hair?
a.        ffss
b.        FfSs
c.        ffSs
d.        Ffss

2.        A blood sample taken from a patient who has an infection can be expected to show which of the following?

a          Elevated white blood cell count
b         Elevated red blood cell count
c          Reduce red blood cell count
d         Reduce White blood cell count

3.        Which of the following organs remove nitrogenous waste from the body?

a.        Liver
b.        Large Intestine
c.        Kidneys
d.        Gall Bladder

4.        An individual cell is able to make copies of its genetic information but is unable to produce encoded proteins. This indicates a possible problem in the_________________________.

a.        Centrosome
b.        Golgi apparatus
c.        Acrosome
d.        Ribosome

5.        Which of the following digestive system structures releases amylase?

a.        Goblet cells
b.        Gallbladder
c.         Salivary glands
d.        Duodenum

6.        Which of the following functions does the myelin sheath perform for a nerve cell?

a.        Nutrition
b.        Sensory perception
c.        Insulation
d.        Regeneration

7.        Which of the following organs is responsible for secretion of the hormone insulin?

a.        Pancreas
b.        Thyroid gland
c.         liver
d.         Adrenal Gland

8.        An increase in which of the following would lead to a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood?

a.        Inhalation rate
b.        Red blood cell count
c.        Exercise rate
d.        Alveoli surface area

9.        Which of the following body system break down proteins into amino acids?

a.        Digestive
b.        Endocrine
c.        Circulatory
d.        Excretory

10.     Which of the following layers of skin contains the sebaceous glands?

a.        Hypodermis
b.        Dermis
c.        Stratum corneum
d.        Epidermis

11.     In the image

12.     Osteoporosis result from which of the followings?

a.        A decline of osteoblast activity while osteoclast activity continues at expected levels
b.        A decline of osteoclast activity while osteoblast activity continues at expected levels
c.        An increase in osteocyte activity while osteoblast activity continues at expected levels
d.        An increase in osteocyte activity while osteoclast activity continues at expected levels

13.     Which of the following occurs in the cardiac cycle if the impulse triggered at the sinoatrial node never close?
a.        Diastole will shorten in duration
b.        The ventricles will not contract
c.        There will be an absence of systole
d.        The atria will not contract.

14.     Which of the following structures is found in all cells?
a.        Cell wall
b.        Mitochondria
c.        Nucleus
d.        Plasma membrane

15.     Which of the following types of cell stimulates other immune cells to attack and destroy?
a.        Helper T-cells
b.        Plasma cells
c.        Cytotoxic T-cell
d.        Natural killer cells

16.     The process known as gastrulation results in the formation of which of the following
a.        Germinal layers
b.        Neural crest
c.        Coelomic cavities
d.        Circulatory systems

17.     Which of the followings molecules must undergo replication before cell division can occur?
a.        ATP
b.        ADP
c.        DNA
d.        RNA

18.     Which of the following structures carriers blood away from the heart?
a.        Ventricles
b.        Arteries
c.        Capillaries
d.        Veins

19.     Which of the following demonstrates condensation?
a.        Dew drops from on a leaf
b.        A water puddle dries up.
c.        Water convert to steam
d.        Ice form on a pond

20.     Of pathogens by phagocytes are nonspecific cell
a.        Antibody- mediated immunity
b.        The internal aspect of adaptive immune system
c.        The internal aspect of the innate immune system
d.        Passive immunity

21.     Which of the following unit is used to indicate mass?
a.        Cm3
b.        Um
c.        Mg
d.        mL

22.     Which of the following demonstrate a chemical reaction of water?
a.        Water boils to produce steam at 100 C (212 F)
b.        Water produces gas with sodium metal
c.        Water and oil separate when combined
d.        Water dissolves sugar

23.     In the experiment, students put brine shrimp in water with different concentration of salt and counted the number.
Which of the following changes to the experiment will increase confidence in the validity of the result?

a.        Count the number of dead brine shrimp instead of living brine shrimp
b.        Add more brine shrimp to the water with the highest salt concentration
c.        Repeat the experiment several times, and calculate the average number of brine shrimp
d.        Reduce the length of the experiment from 24 hours to 8 hours.

24.     Where is the information stored in DNA?
a.        Deoxyribose sugars
b.        Phosphodiester bonds
c.        Phosphate groups
d.        Nitrogenous bases

25.     In the intestine by which of the following?

a.        Pancreatic secretions
b.        Brush- border enzymes
c.        Gastric juice
d.         Mucus production

26.     In which of the following locations does the development of blood call take place?
a.        Bone Marrow
b.        Spongy bone
c.        Endosteum
d.        Periosteum

27.     The component of an atom that possesses relatively little mass, thus being negligible in calculating the atom

a.        Proton
b.        Neuron
c.        Electron
d.        Quart.

28.     S and O are in the same periodic group and share chemical properties, but H2S is a gas at room temperature, following is the main reason for this?

a.        H2S has stronger ionic bonds than H2O
b.        H2S has stronger intramolecular bonds than H2O
c.        H2O has stronger ionic bonds than H2S
d.        H2O has stronger intramolecular bonds than H2S

29.     Which of the following reasons explains why it is important for new scientific findings to be published?
a.        Scientists will get paid if their findings are published
b.        Other scientists can validate or disprove the findings
c.        Publishing findings will help scientists become more biased
d.        This prevent other scientists from performing similar test.

30.     Which of the following organ system filter fluids?
a.        Gallbladder
b.        Kidney
c.        Spleen
d.        stomach
31.     the exchange of nutrients between tissues and blood primary occurs in which of the following locations?
a.        Capillaries
b.        Veins
c.        Arterioles
d.        Aorta

32.     The process by which gametes combine to form a zygote is called which of the following?
a.        Parthenogenesis
b.        Mitosis
c.        Meiosis
d.        Fertilization

33.     Which of the following cellular processes produces gametes?
a.        Mitosis
b.        Glycogenesis
c.        Apoptosis
d.        Meiosis

34.     C3H8  + ________ O2   ======= 3CO  + 4H2O  . Which of the following balances the reaction above?
a.        1
b.        7
c.        5
d.        3

35.     which of the following blood vessels is the identified by the letter “K” in the image?
a.        Pulmonary vein
b.        Aorta
c.        Pulmonary artery
d.        Inferior vena cava

36.     Which portion of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for an increased heart rate?
a.        Sympathetic
b.        Central
c.        Parasympathetic
d.        Enteric

37.     Permanent damage to which of the following types of tissues in the spinal cord will cause paralysis?
a.        Muscle tissue
b.        Nervous Tissues
c.        Bone tissue
d.        Connective tissue

38.     Which of the following diseases is caused by immune system attacking the body’s nervous system?
a.        Pneumonia
b.        Muscular dystrophy
c.        Tuberculosis
d.        Multiple sclerosis

39.     Which of the following is the appropriate prefix to measure the amount of space taken up?
a.        Mili
b.        Deca
c.        Kilo
d.        Micro

40.     In addition to oxygen and carbon dioxide, the circulatory system is the primary delivery system for
a.        cerebrospinal fluid
b.        exocrine secretions
c.        biliary fluids
d.        endocrine hormones

41.     a biology class wants to perform an experiment to investigate the effect of different colors of light of green, yellow, red and clear cellophane and plant three seeds in each one. What part do the three seeds experiment?
a.        Confounding variables
b.        Independent variables
c.        Control variables
d.        Dependent variables
42.     Iodine directly helps which of the following glands to function properly?
a.        Pancreas
b.        Thyroid
c.        Adrenal
d.        Pituitary

43.     Genes are made of which of the followings types of sequences that code for one or more proteins?
a.        Nucleotide
b.        tRNA
c.        Protein
d.        Chromosome

44.     Which of the following is a characteristic of a good hypothesis?

a.        Original idea not based observation
b.        Raises further questions
c.        Should be testable
d.        Contains more than two variables.

45.     Which of the following
a.        Relaxation of the diaphragm
b.        Relaxation of the external intercostal
c.        Contraction of the diaphragm
d.        Contraction of external intercostal

46.     Which of the following gland regulate the function of other glands in the endocrine system?
a.        Thyroid gland
b.        Pineal gland
c.        Parathyroid gland
d.        Pituitary gland

47.     Which of the following reactions occurs during thermoregulation to increase body temperature?
a.        The body relaxes the muscle
b.        The body produces sweat
c.        The body begin shivering
d.        The body sends blood to the skin

48.     Which of the followings terms describes the removal of metabolic waste from the body?
a.        Catabolism
b.        Anabolism
c.        Secretion
d.         Excretion

49.     A deactivated deadly strain of bacteria was first treated with protease enzyme. It was bacteria became deathly
Which of the following statements is a valid conclusion from the experiment above?

a.        Killed bacteria components can make live bacteria deadly
b.        Dead bacteria are more deadly than live bacteria
c.        Protein are dangerous to bacteria and kill them
d.        Protease enzyme causes live bacteria to become deadly

50.     A DNA strand has the sequence 5’ A-C-A-G-T-A-A-A- 3’. Which of the followings if the real sequence?
a.        3’ T-G-T-C-G-G-C-A-T-T-T 5’
b.        3’ A-C-A-G-C-C-G-T-A-A-A 5’
c.        3’ U-G-U-C-G-G-C-A-U-U-U 5’
d.        3’ A-A-A-T-G-C-C-G-A-C-A 5’

51.     Gains and losses of which of the following generally create an electrolyte imbalance?
a.        Sodium
b.        Phosphate
c.        Riboflavin
d.        Sulfur