What is “groupthink”?

  • Read Chapter 5

Read through the following questions and answer one of them in your journal. Your answer should be complete, and must be written in standard, grammatically correct English.

1. List and discuss the five principal characteristics of a bureaucracy. How do bureaucracies create both positive and negative impacts on the members of society? List at least three bureaucracies of which you are a member and discuss how their characteristics are similar to or different from the list provided in the text.

2. What is “groupthink”? Why does the disaster of the space shuttle Columbia in 2003 serve as a good example of the possible results of groupthink? Please discuss any experience you have had with the process, regardless of effects? For example, have you belonged to a group in which members wanted to maintain solidarity so much that they resisted sharing divergent opinions? What happened? What can be done to prevent the process?

4. Leadership is critical for every group. Define leaders, and discuss the characteristics of both instrumental and expressive leaders. Why are they both necessary for an organization to thrive? What type of leader do you tend to be? Why? What effects does your style of leadership tend to have on groups? What are the four leadership styles discussed in the text?  What are their characteristics?  Which one do you believe is best?  Why?

5. Define groups, aggregates, categories, primary groups, secondary groups, in-groups, out-groups, and reference groups. Provide at least two examples of each.

6. McDonaldization of society is a concept created by Ritzer in 1993, and has significant implications for the social world today. After reading the information in the journal entitled, McDonaldization, discuss its characteristics, and both the advantages/strengths and disadvantages/problems of this process. Overall, do you believe McDonaldization has improved society? Why or why not?

_________________________________________________

  •  Read Chapter 6

Read through the following questions and answer one of them in your journal. Your answer should be complete, and must be written in standard, grammatically correct English.

1. List and discuss the five principal characteristics of a bureaucracy. How do bureaucracies create both positive and negative impacts on the members of society? List at least three bureaucracies of which you are a member and discuss how their characteristics are similar to or different from the list provided in the text.

2. What is “groupthink”? Why does the disaster of the space shuttle Columbia in 2003 serve as a good example of the possible results of groupthink? Please discuss any experience you have had with the process, regardless of effects? For example, have you belonged to a group in which members wanted to maintain solidarity so much that they resisted sharing divergent opinions? What happened? What can be done to prevent the process?

4. Leadership is critical for every group. Define leaders, and discuss the characteristics of both instrumental and expressive leaders. Why are they both necessary for an organization to thrive? What type of leader do you tend to be? Why? What effects does your style of leadership tend to have on groups? What are the four leadership styles discussed in the text?  What are their characteristics?  Which one do you believe is best?  Why?

5. Define groups, aggregates, categories, primary groups, secondary groups, in-groups, out-groups, and reference groups. Provide at least two examples of each.

6. McDonaldization of society is a concept created by Ritzer in 1993, and has significant implications for the social world today. After reading the information in the journal entitled, McDonaldization, discuss its characteristics, and both the advantages/strengths and disadvantages/problems of this process. Overall, do you believe McDonaldization has improved society? Why or why not?

Essentials of Sociology

Thirteenth Edition

Chapter 5

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 5.1 The Typical Bureaucratic Structure of a Medium-Sized University

Organization chart showing the hierarchy of positions at a university.

Source: By the author.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

2

Figure 5.2 The Effects of Group Size on Relationships

Diagrams showing the increase in the number of relationships as group size grows.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

Figure 5.3 Asch’s Cards

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

4

Photo Credits

Chapter 5 133: Diana Ong/SuperStock; 136: Eric Fowke/Alamy Stock Photo;

136: John Birdsall/The Image Works; 136: Huntstock, Inc/Alamy Stock Photo; 136: Keith Douglas/Alamy Stock Photo; 136: logoboom/Shutterstock; 136: Michael N. Paras/AGE Fotostock; 138: Robert Weber/The New Yorker Collection/The Cartoon Bank; 138: Tom Bushey/The Image Works; 140: David J. Phillip/AP Images; 141: kali9/E+/Getty Images; 141: Image Source/

SuperStock; 143: Chris Smith/PhotoEdit,Inc.; 144: Kyodo/Newscom; 145: Greg Baker/AP Images; 146: Bettmann/Getty Images; 146: Damon Higgins/

ZUMA Press Inc/Alamy Stock Photo; 147: SuperStock; 148: Blend Images/

SuperStock; 148: Rex Features/AP Images; 148: Kablonk! RF/Golden Pixels

LLC/Alamy Stock Photo; 151: Prasit photo/Moment/Getty Images; 151: Exactostock-1491/SuperStock; 153: Granger Wootz/Blend Images/Getty

Images; 154: James M. Henslin; 154: James M. Henslin; 154: James M. Henslin; 154: James M. Henslin; 156: Pictorial Press Ltd/Alamy Stock Photo;

158: Courtesy of Alexandra Milgram. Copyright 1968 by Stanley Milgram. Copyright renewed 1993 by Alexandra Milgram. From the film OBEDIENCE, distributed by Penn State Media Sales;

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

5

Copyright

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

6

Essentials of Sociology

Thirteenth Edition

Chapter 6

Deviance and Social Control

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Functionalist Perspective (3 of 6)

Table 6.1 How People Match Their Goals to Their Means
Do They Feel the Strain That Leads to Anomie? Mode of Adaptation Cultural Goals Institutionalized Means
No Conformity Accept Accept
Deviant Paths
Yes 1. Innovation Accept Reject
2. Ritualism Reject Accept
3. Retreatism Reject Reject
4. Rebellion Reject/Replace Reject/Replace

Source: Based on Merton 1968.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 6.1 How Safe Is Your State? Violent Crime in the U.S.

NOTE: Violent crimes are murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. I estimated Minnesota’s rate, based on earlier data and reduced rates since then. The chance of becoming a victim of a violent crime is five times higher in Tennessee, the most dangerous state, than in Maine, the safest state. Washington, D.C., not a state, is in a class by itself. Its rate of 1,244 is twelve times higher than Vermont’s rate.

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States 2017:Table 334.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

The Functionalist Perspective (5 of 6)

Table 6.2 Women and Crime: What a Change
Of all those arrested, what percentage are women?
Crime 1992 2014 Change
Burglary 9.2% 17.8% +93%
Car theft 10.8% 20.3% +88%
Drunken driving 13.8% 25.0% +81%
Stolen property 12.5% 21.5% +72%
Robbery 8.5% 14.0% +65%
Aggravated assault 14.8% 23.0% +55%
Arson 13.4% 18.9% +41%

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Functionalist Perspective (6 of 6)

Table 6.2 Women and Crime: What a Change
Of all those arrested, what percentage are women?
Crime 1992 2014 Change
Larceny/theft 32.1% 43.2% +35%
Illegal drugs 16.4% 21.9% +34%
Illegal weapons 7.5% 8.8% +17%
Forgery and counterfeiting 34.7% 36.5% +5%
Fraud 42.1% 39.1% –7%

Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States1994 and 2017:Table 357.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 6.2 How Much Is Enough? The Explosion in the Number of U.S. Prisoners

Line graph showing the number of prisoners in the U.S. over time.

Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 1995:Table 349; 2014:Tables 2, 6, 363; Carson and Anderson 2016. The broken line is the author’s estimate.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

6

Reactions to Deviance (2 of 7)

Table 6.3 Comparing Prison Inmates with the U.S. Population
Characteristics Percentage of Prisoners with These Characteristics Percentage of U.S. Population Age 18 and Over with These Characteristicsa
Ageb
18-24 11.3% 12.6%
25-34 32.1% 17.8%
35-44 26.7% 16.4%
45-54 18.9% 17.4%
55 & older 10.6% 35.8%

aBecause this column refers to Americans age 18 and over, the percentages will not agree with other totals in this book. For education, the percentages are based on Americans age 25 and over.

bAge, race-ethnicity, and sex of prisoners are from Carson and Anderson while their marital status and education are from Sourcebook.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reactions to Deviance (3 of 7)

Table 6.3 Comparing Prison Inmates with the U.S. Population
Characteristics Percentage of Prisoners with These Characteristics Percentage of U.S. Population Age 18 and Over with These Characteristicsa
Race-Ethnicityb
African American 35.4% 12.7%
White 33.8% 64.6%
Latino 21.6% 15.5%
Otherc 9.1% 7.2%

aBecause this column refers to Americans age 18 and over, the percentages will not agree with other totals in this book. For education, the percentages are based on Americans age 25 and over.

bAge, race-ethnicity, and sex of prisoners are from Carson and Anderson while their marital status and education are from Sourcebook.

cRemainder after Sourcebook lists African American, white, and Hispanic apparently includes Asian Americans, Native Americans, and people who claim two or more races.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reactions to Deviance (4 of 7)

Table 6.3 Comparing Prison Inmates with the U.S. Population
Characteristics Percentage of Prisoners with These Characteristics Percentage of U.S. Population Age 18 and Over with These Characteristicsa
Sexb
Male 92.7% 49.2%
Female 7.3% 50.8%
Marital Statusc
Never married 54.7% 27.6%
Married 21.9% 56.0%
Divorced/Widowed 23.0% 16.4%

aBecause this column refers to Americans age 18 and over, the percentages will not agree with other totals in this book. For education, the percentages are based on Americans age 25 and over.

bAge, race-ethnicity, and sex of prisoners are from Carson and Anderson while their marital status and education are from Sourcebook.

cThe marital status of prisoners applies only to inmates on death row. Data not available for other inmates.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reactions to Deviance (5 of 7)

Table 6.3 Comparing Prison Inmates with the U.S. Population
Characteristics Percentage of Prisoners with These Characteristics Percentage of U.S. Population Age 18 and Over with These Characteristicsa
Education
Less than HS 30.6% 12.4%
HS graduate 45.8% 30.4%
Some college 18.8% 26.3%
College graduate 4.8% 30.9%

Source: By the author. Based on Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2013:Tables 6.0001, 6.45, 6.81; Carson and Anderson 2016:Tables 1, 3, 8; Statistical Abstract of the United States 2014:Tables 59, 243, 366; 2017:Tables 6, 10.

aBecause this column refers to Americans age 18 and over, the percentages will not agree with other totals in this book. For education, the percentages are based on Americans age 25 and over.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 6.3 How Fast They Return: Recidivism of U.S. Prisoners

Line graph indicating the percentage of those going back to prison within five years of release.

Source: Modified by the author from Figure 1 of Durose et al. 2014.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

11

Figure 6.4 Recidivism by Type of Crime

Source: By the author. Based on Durose et al. 2014:Table 8.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

12

Figure 6.5 Executions in the United States

A map of the number of U. S. executions state by state.

NOTE: Executions since 1977, when the death penalty was restored. The executions in states without the death penalty occurred before those states banned the death penalty.

Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2014:Table 368; Bureau of Justice Statistics 2014b.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

13

Figure 6.6 Who Gets Executed? Gender Bias in Capital Punishment

Bar graph showing the vastly greater percentage of people executed are male.

Source: By the author. Based on

Statistical Abstract of the United States 2017:Table 379.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

14

Photo Credits

Chapter 6 Pixtal/SuperStock; 001: Chagnon, Napoleon A. Yanomamo: The Fierce People, 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977.; 0103: Based on Sykes, Gresham M., and David Matza. “Techniques of Neutralization.” In Down to Earth Sociology: Introductory Readings, 5th ed., James M. Henslin, ed. New York: Free Press, 1988:225–231. Originally published 1957.; 011: Rene Stutzman, “Biker gangs thrive in Central Florida”, Orlando Sentinel, May 26, 2014.; 012: Based on Merton, Robert K. Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1949. Enlarged ed., 1968.; 017: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 1994 and 2017:Table 357.; 017: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2017:Table 334.; 018: Based on Drew, Christopher. “Military Contractor Agrees to Pay $325 Million to Settle Whistle-Blower Lawsuit.” New York Times, April 2, 2009.; 021: Based on Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2013:Tables 6.0001, 6.45, 6.81; Carson and Anderson 2016:Tables 1, 3, 8; Statistical Abstract of the United States 2014:Tables 59, 243, 366; 2017:Tables 6, 10; 021: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 1995:Table 349; 2014:Tables 2, 6, 363; Carson and Anderson 2016.; 024: Based on Durose et al. 2014:Table 8.; 024: Based on Figure 1 from Durose et al. 2014.; 025: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2014:Table 368; Bureau of Justice Statistics 2014b.; 025: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2017:Table 379.; 026: Based on Sheridan, Mary Beth. “Salinas Warns Mexico Against Drug Probe.” Los Angeles Times, September 22, 1998; Malkin, Elisabeth. “Mexican Offcials Say Prisoners Acted as Hit Men.” New York Times, July 25, 2010; Archibold, Randal C. “Mexico Holds 4 High-Ranking Army Offcers.” New York Times, May 18, 2012; Casey, Nicholas. “Mexico’s Masked Vigilantes Defy Drug Gangs—And the Law.” Wall Street Journal, February 2–3, 2013; Casey and Harrup 2014; Johnson 2014; Perez and Cordoba 2014; Althaus and de Cordoba 2016; Woody 2017.; 031: Durkheim, Emile. The Rules of Sociological Method, Sarah A. Solovay and John H. Mueller, trans. New York: Free Press, 1938, 1958, 1964:68. Originally published 1895.; A Ramey/PhotoEdit, Inc.; Aaron Josefczyk/Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC; AP Images; Babu/Reuters; Booking Photo/Supplied by PacificCoastNews/Newscom; Damian Dovarganes/AP Images; Daphne Ouwersloot/Alamy Stock Photo; Grandriver/E+/Getty Images; James M Henslin; Jorge Dan Lopez/Reuters; Juice Images/Alamy Stock Photo; Leo Cullum The New Yorker Collection/The Cartoon Bank; Monika Graff/The Image Works; PeopleImages/DigitalVision/Getty Images; Pixtal/Superstock; Radius Images/Alamy Stock Photo; Robert Daly/Caiaimage/Getty Images; Ronaldo Schemidt/AFP/Getty-Images; Science History Images/Alamy Stock Photo; Splash/Newscom; Tom Williams/CQ Roll Call/Newscom; WENN Ltd/Alamy Stock Photo

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15

Copyright

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

16

  • Read Chapter 5

Read through the following questions and answer one of them in your journal. Your answer should be complete, and must be written in standard, grammatically correct English.

1. List and discuss the five principal characteristics of a bureaucracy. How do bureaucracies create both positive and negative impacts on the members of society? List at least three bureaucracies of which you are a member and discuss how their characteristics are similar to or different from the list provided in the text.

2. What is “groupthink”? Why does the disaster of the space shuttle Columbia in 2003 serve as a good example of the possible results of groupthink? Please discuss any experience you have had with the process, regardless of effects? For example, have you belonged to a group in which members wanted to maintain solidarity so much that they resisted sharing divergent opinions? What happened? What can be done to prevent the process?

4. Leadership is critical for every group. Define leaders, and discuss the characteristics of both instrumental and expressive leaders. Why are they both necessary for an organization to thrive? What type of leader do you tend to be? Why? What effects does your style of leadership tend to have on groups? What are the four leadership styles discussed in the text?  What are their characteristics?  Which one do you believe is best?  Why?

5. Define groups, aggregates, categories, primary groups, secondary groups, in-groups, out-groups, and reference groups. Provide at least two examples of each.

6. McDonaldization of society is a concept created by Ritzer in 1993, and has significant implications for the social world today. After reading the information in the journal entitled, McDonaldization, discuss its characteristics, and both the advantages/strengths and disadvantages/problems of this process. Overall, do you believe McDonaldization has improved society? Why or why not?

_________________________________________________

  •  Read Chapter 6

Read through the following questions and answer one of them in your journal. Your answer should be complete, and must be written in standard, grammatically correct English.

1. List and discuss the five principal characteristics of a bureaucracy. How do bureaucracies create both positive and negative impacts on the members of society? List at least three bureaucracies of which you are a member and discuss how their characteristics are similar to or different from the list provided in the text.

2. What is “groupthink”? Why does the disaster of the space shuttle Columbia in 2003 serve as a good example of the possible results of groupthink? Please discuss any experience you have had with the process, regardless of effects? For example, have you belonged to a group in which members wanted to maintain solidarity so much that they resisted sharing divergent opinions? What happened? What can be done to prevent the process?

4. Leadership is critical for every group. Define leaders, and discuss the characteristics of both instrumental and expressive leaders. Why are they both necessary for an organization to thrive? What type of leader do you tend to be? Why? What effects does your style of leadership tend to have on groups? What are the four leadership styles discussed in the text?  What are their characteristics?  Which one do you believe is best?  Why?

5. Define groups, aggregates, categories, primary groups, secondary groups, in-groups, out-groups, and reference groups. Provide at least two examples of each.

6. McDonaldization of society is a concept created by Ritzer in 1993, and has significant implications for the social world today. After reading the information in the journal entitled, McDonaldization, discuss its characteristics, and both the advantages/strengths and disadvantages/problems of this process. Overall, do you believe McDonaldization has improved society? Why or why not?

Essentials of Sociology

Thirteenth Edition

Chapter 5

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 5.1 The Typical Bureaucratic Structure of a Medium-Sized University

Organization chart showing the hierarchy of positions at a university.

Source: By the author.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

2

Figure 5.2 The Effects of Group Size on Relationships

Diagrams showing the increase in the number of relationships as group size grows.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

Figure 5.3 Asch’s Cards

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

4

Photo Credits

Chapter 5 133: Diana Ong/SuperStock; 136: Eric Fowke/Alamy Stock Photo;

136: John Birdsall/The Image Works; 136: Huntstock, Inc/Alamy Stock Photo; 136: Keith Douglas/Alamy Stock Photo; 136: logoboom/Shutterstock; 136: Michael N. Paras/AGE Fotostock; 138: Robert Weber/The New Yorker Collection/The Cartoon Bank; 138: Tom Bushey/The Image Works; 140: David J. Phillip/AP Images; 141: kali9/E+/Getty Images; 141: Image Source/

SuperStock; 143: Chris Smith/PhotoEdit,Inc.; 144: Kyodo/Newscom; 145: Greg Baker/AP Images; 146: Bettmann/Getty Images; 146: Damon Higgins/

ZUMA Press Inc/Alamy Stock Photo; 147: SuperStock; 148: Blend Images/

SuperStock; 148: Rex Features/AP Images; 148: Kablonk! RF/Golden Pixels

LLC/Alamy Stock Photo; 151: Prasit photo/Moment/Getty Images; 151: Exactostock-1491/SuperStock; 153: Granger Wootz/Blend Images/Getty

Images; 154: James M. Henslin; 154: James M. Henslin; 154: James M. Henslin; 154: James M. Henslin; 156: Pictorial Press Ltd/Alamy Stock Photo;

158: Courtesy of Alexandra Milgram. Copyright 1968 by Stanley Milgram. Copyright renewed 1993 by Alexandra Milgram. From the film OBEDIENCE, distributed by Penn State Media Sales;

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

5

Copyright

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

6

Essentials of Sociology

Thirteenth Edition

Chapter 6

Deviance and Social Control

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Functionalist Perspective (3 of 6)

Table 6.1 How People Match Their Goals to Their Means
Do They Feel the Strain That Leads to Anomie? Mode of Adaptation Cultural Goals Institutionalized Means
No Conformity Accept Accept
Deviant Paths
Yes 1. Innovation Accept Reject
2. Ritualism Reject Accept
3. Retreatism Reject Reject
4. Rebellion Reject/Replace Reject/Replace

Source: Based on Merton 1968.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 6.1 How Safe Is Your State? Violent Crime in the U.S.

NOTE: Violent crimes are murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. I estimated Minnesota’s rate, based on earlier data and reduced rates since then. The chance of becoming a victim of a violent crime is five times higher in Tennessee, the most dangerous state, than in Maine, the safest state. Washington, D.C., not a state, is in a class by itself. Its rate of 1,244 is twelve times higher than Vermont’s rate.

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States 2017:Table 334.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3

The Functionalist Perspective (5 of 6)

Table 6.2 Women and Crime: What a Change
Of all those arrested, what percentage are women?
Crime 1992 2014 Change
Burglary 9.2% 17.8% +93%
Car theft 10.8% 20.3% +88%
Drunken driving 13.8% 25.0% +81%
Stolen property 12.5% 21.5% +72%
Robbery 8.5% 14.0% +65%
Aggravated assault 14.8% 23.0% +55%
Arson 13.4% 18.9% +41%

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Functionalist Perspective (6 of 6)

Table 6.2 Women and Crime: What a Change
Of all those arrested, what percentage are women?
Crime 1992 2014 Change
Larceny/theft 32.1% 43.2% +35%
Illegal drugs 16.4% 21.9% +34%
Illegal weapons 7.5% 8.8% +17%
Forgery and counterfeiting 34.7% 36.5% +5%
Fraud 42.1% 39.1% –7%

Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States1994 and 2017:Table 357.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 6.2 How Much Is Enough? The Explosion in the Number of U.S. Prisoners

Line graph showing the number of prisoners in the U.S. over time.

Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 1995:Table 349; 2014:Tables 2, 6, 363; Carson and Anderson 2016. The broken line is the author’s estimate.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

6

Reactions to Deviance (2 of 7)

Table 6.3 Comparing Prison Inmates with the U.S. Population
Characteristics Percentage of Prisoners with These Characteristics Percentage of U.S. Population Age 18 and Over with These Characteristicsa
Ageb
18-24 11.3% 12.6%
25-34 32.1% 17.8%
35-44 26.7% 16.4%
45-54 18.9% 17.4%
55 & older 10.6% 35.8%

aBecause this column refers to Americans age 18 and over, the percentages will not agree with other totals in this book. For education, the percentages are based on Americans age 25 and over.

bAge, race-ethnicity, and sex of prisoners are from Carson and Anderson while their marital status and education are from Sourcebook.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reactions to Deviance (3 of 7)

Table 6.3 Comparing Prison Inmates with the U.S. Population
Characteristics Percentage of Prisoners with These Characteristics Percentage of U.S. Population Age 18 and Over with These Characteristicsa
Race-Ethnicityb
African American 35.4% 12.7%
White 33.8% 64.6%
Latino 21.6% 15.5%
Otherc 9.1% 7.2%

aBecause this column refers to Americans age 18 and over, the percentages will not agree with other totals in this book. For education, the percentages are based on Americans age 25 and over.

bAge, race-ethnicity, and sex of prisoners are from Carson and Anderson while their marital status and education are from Sourcebook.

cRemainder after Sourcebook lists African American, white, and Hispanic apparently includes Asian Americans, Native Americans, and people who claim two or more races.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reactions to Deviance (4 of 7)

Table 6.3 Comparing Prison Inmates with the U.S. Population
Characteristics Percentage of Prisoners with These Characteristics Percentage of U.S. Population Age 18 and Over with These Characteristicsa
Sexb
Male 92.7% 49.2%
Female 7.3% 50.8%
Marital Statusc
Never married 54.7% 27.6%
Married 21.9% 56.0%
Divorced/Widowed 23.0% 16.4%

aBecause this column refers to Americans age 18 and over, the percentages will not agree with other totals in this book. For education, the percentages are based on Americans age 25 and over.

bAge, race-ethnicity, and sex of prisoners are from Carson and Anderson while their marital status and education are from Sourcebook.

cThe marital status of prisoners applies only to inmates on death row. Data not available for other inmates.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reactions to Deviance (5 of 7)

Table 6.3 Comparing Prison Inmates with the U.S. Population
Characteristics Percentage of Prisoners with These Characteristics Percentage of U.S. Population Age 18 and Over with These Characteristicsa
Education
Less than HS 30.6% 12.4%
HS graduate 45.8% 30.4%
Some college 18.8% 26.3%
College graduate 4.8% 30.9%

Source: By the author. Based on Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2013:Tables 6.0001, 6.45, 6.81; Carson and Anderson 2016:Tables 1, 3, 8; Statistical Abstract of the United States 2014:Tables 59, 243, 366; 2017:Tables 6, 10.

aBecause this column refers to Americans age 18 and over, the percentages will not agree with other totals in this book. For education, the percentages are based on Americans age 25 and over.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 6.3 How Fast They Return: Recidivism of U.S. Prisoners

Line graph indicating the percentage of those going back to prison within five years of release.

Source: Modified by the author from Figure 1 of Durose et al. 2014.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

11

Figure 6.4 Recidivism by Type of Crime

Source: By the author. Based on Durose et al. 2014:Table 8.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

12

Figure 6.5 Executions in the United States

A map of the number of U. S. executions state by state.

NOTE: Executions since 1977, when the death penalty was restored. The executions in states without the death penalty occurred before those states banned the death penalty.

Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2014:Table 368; Bureau of Justice Statistics 2014b.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

13

Figure 6.6 Who Gets Executed? Gender Bias in Capital Punishment

Bar graph showing the vastly greater percentage of people executed are male.

Source: By the author. Based on

Statistical Abstract of the United States 2017:Table 379.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

14

Photo Credits

Chapter 6 Pixtal/SuperStock; 001: Chagnon, Napoleon A. Yanomamo: The Fierce People, 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977.; 0103: Based on Sykes, Gresham M., and David Matza. “Techniques of Neutralization.” In Down to Earth Sociology: Introductory Readings, 5th ed., James M. Henslin, ed. New York: Free Press, 1988:225–231. Originally published 1957.; 011: Rene Stutzman, “Biker gangs thrive in Central Florida”, Orlando Sentinel, May 26, 2014.; 012: Based on Merton, Robert K. Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1949. Enlarged ed., 1968.; 017: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 1994 and 2017:Table 357.; 017: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2017:Table 334.; 018: Based on Drew, Christopher. “Military Contractor Agrees to Pay $325 Million to Settle Whistle-Blower Lawsuit.” New York Times, April 2, 2009.; 021: Based on Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2013:Tables 6.0001, 6.45, 6.81; Carson and Anderson 2016:Tables 1, 3, 8; Statistical Abstract of the United States 2014:Tables 59, 243, 366; 2017:Tables 6, 10; 021: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 1995:Table 349; 2014:Tables 2, 6, 363; Carson and Anderson 2016.; 024: Based on Durose et al. 2014:Table 8.; 024: Based on Figure 1 from Durose et al. 2014.; 025: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2014:Table 368; Bureau of Justice Statistics 2014b.; 025: Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 2017:Table 379.; 026: Based on Sheridan, Mary Beth. “Salinas Warns Mexico Against Drug Probe.” Los Angeles Times, September 22, 1998; Malkin, Elisabeth. “Mexican Offcials Say Prisoners Acted as Hit Men.” New York Times, July 25, 2010; Archibold, Randal C. “Mexico Holds 4 High-Ranking Army Offcers.” New York Times, May 18, 2012; Casey, Nicholas. “Mexico’s Masked Vigilantes Defy Drug Gangs—And the Law.” Wall Street Journal, February 2–3, 2013; Casey and Harrup 2014; Johnson 2014; Perez and Cordoba 2014; Althaus and de Cordoba 2016; Woody 2017.; 031: Durkheim, Emile. The Rules of Sociological Method, Sarah A. Solovay and John H. Mueller, trans. New York: Free Press, 1938, 1958, 1964:68. Originally published 1895.; A Ramey/PhotoEdit, Inc.; Aaron Josefczyk/Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC; AP Images; Babu/Reuters; Booking Photo/Supplied by PacificCoastNews/Newscom; Damian Dovarganes/AP Images; Daphne Ouwersloot/Alamy Stock Photo; Grandriver/E+/Getty Images; James M Henslin; Jorge Dan Lopez/Reuters; Juice Images/Alamy Stock Photo; Leo Cullum The New Yorker Collection/The Cartoon Bank; Monika Graff/The Image Works; PeopleImages/DigitalVision/Getty Images; Pixtal/Superstock; Radius Images/Alamy Stock Photo; Robert Daly/Caiaimage/Getty Images; Ronaldo Schemidt/AFP/Getty-Images; Science History Images/Alamy Stock Photo; Splash/Newscom; Tom Williams/CQ Roll Call/Newscom; WENN Ltd/Alamy Stock Photo

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